|The Purpose of a Resume||Additional Resume Writing Resources|
|Timeline/Getting Started with Your Resume||Design Sheets|
|Samples/Anatomy of a Resume||How Career Services Can Help You|
An effective resume (and, in the case of design professionals, a design sheet) can win you an interview. Most employers glance at resumes only briefly before deciding which to study further. Use this time to your best advantage by being concise, creating a strong visual impression, and emphasizing the most relevant information by putting it first and devoting the most space to it. Whatever your field, many of the same principles apply.
Resumes are a SUMMARY of your selected professional experiences in the context of where you want to go next. They are not meant to be a comprehensive list of your every activity or accomplishment. Resumes serve as a marketing tool meaning you select the "message" of accomplishments that will show you are qualified for a particular job. The skills you illustrate in your resume must match the requirements of the job. If you are applying to multiple types of jobs or multiple types of employers, you will likely find more success in your job applications by creating multiple versions of your resume. Because a resume concisely summarizes your experience, education and skills as they relate to a specific career field or job, it is important that you are familiar with the industry, career field and organizations that interest you. You will write a more effective resume if you do this research and are informed about potential employers.
Most private sector, nonprofit and government jobs in the United States require a resume rather than a CV. (For a discussion of applying for academic jobs, see Academic Job Search Handbook and our online guide to CVs.)
"American Style" Resumes - a Note for International Students
Unlike the CV you might create for a job outside the United States "American style" resumes do not include personal details. You do not need to include date of birth, gender, health or marital status; in fact employers are not allowed to hire (or not) based on these qualities.
Before drafting your resume, review all your qualifications. Using the categories suggested below, list everything which you might include. This list will form the basis for your resume and will help you identify your accomplishments. Eventually you will choose what to include or exclude for each application, but initially it is important not to overlook anything relevant. Think through the skills you would like to emphasize. For example, if you would like to stress your team-work abilities, write descriptions which incorporate specific accomplishments demonstrating those strengths.
The next step is to find a job to apply to, or at least the type of job you want to apply to. There is no such thing as a one-size-fits-all resume, each should be tailored to each job you apply to, but there will certainly be parts of the document that will stay much the same, and be appropriate for multiple jobs. This might mean changing some of the key words in the resume, or illustrating different skills in your bullet points, so that you are describing your experience in the employer's language, not your own.
Go through the job advertisement and carefully note all of the requirements and skills the employer is looking for. Based on your background research of the employer and the people you have spoken to who know about this employer, try to create a resume that illustrates that you have these skills and have used them effectively.
Use some of the samples and resources we have provided to create a draft version of your resume, and then make an appointment with Career Services. In this stage, you should experiment with the format, pare down irrelevant information, have the resume critiqued by a Career Services advisor, and then make at least one more draft before you produce the final version.
Every resume should include information about your education and relevant professional experience. Many other sections may be added, including a job objective, summary of qualifications, honors, awards and competitions, extracurricular and community activities, certifications, professional memberships, languages, technical and research skills, and background information. Choose categories which showcase your strengths in relation to the job(s) that interests you. Organize the contents of your resume by highlighting whatever category of information is most important, given your career goal. Within each category, give information in reverse chronological order (listing the most recent first, and then going back in time). In general, whatever is most relevant merits the most space.
We have many resume samples from different fields, provided by PennDesign graduates after their successful job searches. Here is a general template for a resume, and below is an overview of typical sections in a resume. For many positions, employers have a strong preference for candidates to submit a one-page resume; two pages at the most. In any case, if you use more than one page, put the most important information on the first page, and be sure to add your name and page number to the second page in a header or footer.
|Federal Application Tips - Federal resumes look different and contain specific content - to learn about writing federal resumes, click here.|
Formatting and Layout
Layout is crucial to the impression your resume makes. Resumes are skimmed before they are read, so try to have the most important information "jump off the page" when readers take an initial glance at your resume. Put dates on the right-hand margin. In general, the simpler the formatting, the easier it is to read a resume. Use a standard font that is easy to read. Times and Helvetica, or fonts like them, are commonly used. Use one font and one or two type sizes, from 10-12 points. Using just one type and size of font and relying on capitalization and boldfacing for emphasis is also acceptable. To create emphasis, use indentations, capitalizations, spacing, boldface or italics.
A good check for whether or not your resume is effective is to show the resume to a friend for 15 seconds and then ask which points they remember or what items they saw first.
Your name, address, telephone and email should always come first as part of the "header" of a resume. Make sure the voicemail message is appropriately professional. List only one email address; an employer won't know which to use if more than one is listed. If you have a website, you may also list the URL in your contact information/header.
Objectives are optional, but in many cases, a well-worded, specific objective strengthens your resume. It should answer the question, "What does this person want to do?" and set the tone for what kinds of qualifications and accomplishments will follow, that support the objective. Avoid bland, vague phrases like "Seeking a challenging and responsible position using my creativity." The objectives below, while simple, are acceptably specific:
- A career in the adaptation, redesign, and redevelopment of historic buildings to viable contemporary use.
- To obtain position in urban planning with focus on neighborhood revitalization, downtown redevelopment and economic development.
- Develop deep, technical expertise in storm water management by leveraging extensive landscape architecture background and strong knowledge of and interest in LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) methodology.
- To utilize previous experience including project management and business development in a full-time role in commercial real estate.
Qualifications, Professional Summary, or Profile
This optional category can follow or substitute for an objective in a resume. A well-written "Qualifications" section can focus the reader's attention on your strengths. Like the objective, it must be specific. Writing a good one requires you to think carefully about exactly what you have to offer. For example:
Meticulous researcher with experience in project management. Persuasive public speaker. Bilingual in Spanish and English. Strong interest and background in historic preservation and conservation issues.
Two years' experience serving as liaison between community groups and government agencies. Familiarity with budget preparation and administration. Skill at public speaking and negotiating working relationships between public and private sector organizations.
Sometimes an objective and a statement of qualifications are combined: Seeking position in midsize landscape design firm. Self motivated, creative, excellent problem solving and technical skills. Able to effectively communicate with in-house colleagues, clients and contractors. Proficient in AutoCad, Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Powerpoint) as well as graphics programs including Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop and Sketch-Up.
In reverse chronological order, list all your degrees from your present or most recent program back to your college experience, but do not include high school/secondary school. List the name of the institution and the date degrees were awarded. List the date you expect to receive the degree for the program you are currently in. If you are a doctoral student who will not complete your degree for some time, date the times important milestones were completed, such as completing all coursework.
You may include details in this section such as special areas of academic concentration, title or topic of thesis, and name of advisor. You may also list additional projects or specific research papers. Be sure to condense or expand your academic background in ways that are relevant to where you want to go next in your career. If you have self-financed a significant portion of your undergraduate and graduate education, through any combination of scholarships, work, and loans, you may want to put a statement on a resume such as "Self-financed 80% of undergraduate and graduate education." EXAMPLE:
School of Design, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, May 20XX
Master of Fine Arts
Received Piero Dorazio Award for outstanding academic performance
Elected 20XX-20XX Fine Arts Representative, Graduate School Council
Awarded Lecturer position to teach Intaglio Printmaking, Spring 20XX
Granted Teaching Assistantships in Three-Dimensional Design, Advanced Digital Imaging, and Visual Communications
Relevant graduate coursework at the School of Design and Wharton School includes Modeling Geographical Space, Landscape Architecture, Modeling Geographical Objects, City and Regional Planning, Architecture, and Product Design and Development Management, Operations Information Management
Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, June 20XX
Bachelor of Arts, Studio Art; Minor, Earth Science
Graduated Cum Laude (GPA 3.6/4.0) with Honors. Five academic citations for exceptional achievement.
Granted nine-month Post Graduate Fellowship in Fine Arts (September 20XX-June 20XX)
New York Studio School, New York, NY, 20XX, 20XX
One of two students nationwide awarded the Drawing Marathon and Sculpture Scholarship
Honors, Awards, and Activities
These categories can be combined with "Education" or given separate sections, depending upon how major a qualification they are for the positions that interest you. Depending on the kinds of jobs you are applying to, if you have received several prestigious and highly competitive awards, for example, you might want to highlight them with a separate section. Commonly known honors (Phi Beta Kappa) need no explanation, but other awards can be briefly explained. Foreign students, in particular, should stress the degree to which an unfamiliar award was competitive. For example, "One of three selected from among 2,000 graduating architects nationally." If you have many awards you may choose to list just the most prestigious to save space for other relevant information. You might use a heading such as "Selected Honors and Awards."
If you were very active in school, give details about only your most impressive/interesting activities. If you became extremely involved in an activity, such submitting to, and winning, a design competition as part of a team, and want to discuss it at some length it can also be included under "Experience." In the example above, honors and awards are combined with "Education." Make sure that your descriptions clearly show what skills you used and what results/outcomes you achieved.
In this section, more than any other, you will emphasize material in proportion to its probable interest for a particular audience of employers. Include everything you've done that's relevant, whether you did it as an employee, as an intern, as a volunteer, as a member of a student research team, or as the officer of an organization. Sometimes one general heading called "Experience" is all you need. Sometimes you will want to subdivide this section by functions (such as "Curatorial Work" and "Program Administration"), by topic (such as "Sustainability" and "Transportation") or by industry (such as "Urban Design" and "Property Development"). Describe each experience to give an overview of what you did, with an emphasis on what you were able to accomplish in the position. Use verb phrases and make every word count. Instead of saying "Responsibilities included developing various new course materials and instructional aids," say "Developed training materials on customer service now used for all new employees, resulting in positive recognition from management." If you are describing a research project, give a brief introductory statement indicating what you set out to accomplish and what results you obtained. If relevant, go on to indicate important research techniques you used, such as ArcGIS.
Additional Sections for MFAs
Exhibitions - This is a very important section if you are applying for college teaching jobs or submitting work to galleries. You might omit or condense it for high school teaching or for non-arts positions. This section will grow and become more impressive with time. As you exhibit more widely, you may divide the section between group and individual shows. Obviously juried or one -person shows, or shows at well-known galleries are the most impressive. At the beginning of your career, however, list what you have. Should you include all-student shows? Probably not if every students in the department was automatically included, and probably so if the show was selective in any way.
Commissions may also be listed.
These are usually cited only on a resume for a research position, or on a resume for a position which requires writing for publications. In these cases, use standard bibliographic format. If you are applying for a position in a non-research setting, don't cite publications in full. A phrase such as "Five publications in professional journals" is usually all that is necessary. This shows that you completed research projects and successfully communicated your accomplishments to a broader audience, both good skills to highlight accross most fields.
Civic or Community Activities/Leadership
Often employers are interested in what you do besides work. Volunteer work with charity organizations, student groups, alumni associations, or civic or political groups is of interest. Usually you don't need detailed descriptions of these activities; however if you want to show transferable skills, you can describe relevant accomplishments of your volunteer effort, for example: "Coordinated 12 volunteers in a fundraising effort that resulted in $53,000 in donations." Occasionally you may be concerned about reaction to disclosing political or religious activities/affiliations. In such cases, you can use more general phrases, such as "the Pennsylvania Senatorial primary," rather than identifying a campaign by the candidate's name.
List memberships or committee work in professional organizations. If you have been very active in university committee work, you might include that information here, or create a separate section, or include it in the "Leadership" section of your resume.
Technical Skills or Other Specialized Skills
This section is usually in the form of a simple list. State the most relevant skills first.
This is the place to put interesting information that does not fit elsewhere. You may include foreign languages (unless they are highly relevant to your career goal, in which case they merit their own section or could be included in a section on specialized skills) and interests that show your accomplishments such as artistic endeavors, competitive sports, extensive travel and the like.
Formatting for Email, Print or Online Applications
If you send your resume by email, save it in a pdf document, and name it with your name and date, such as "J.WongResume2016.pdf" instead of "Resume.pdf"
Make sure your resume looks good printed in black and white, in addition to how it looks if read on a screen.
- Resume Template
- Sample materials - resumes and design sheets
- Skill/Verb List for constructing resumes
- Resume checklist
- Career Services Blog: "What Disney can Teach you About a Good CV/Resume," "Iterative Design and Your Resume" and "Resume Speed" are just a few of the entries on the topic. Additionally, you might gain some insights in the tips included in this blog: Show Me Your Skills! How to Create a Portfolio that Stands Out to Recruiters.
- Wetfeet 'Insider Guides' to resumes (and cover letters): visit our online subscriptions page to access these resources and see more examples. These guides offer specific information about resumes for fields such as consulting and real estate.
Your design sheet(s) should be visually appealing to give an employer an example of your best work. Design sheets are not a substitute for a portfolio. Unlike a portfolio, however, these materials can be included every time you send out a resume and cover letter.
Employers say that a good design sheet is a highly effective way of demonstrating what you can do. However, a poor design sheet can easily eliminate you from consideration. Choose something representative of your best work, which will reproduce well. Remember that your design sheet might not be printed on a color printer if you send it via email to someone.
It can be better to show one project, rather than a hodge-podge of unrelated ones. Your design sheet(s) should be visually appealing to give an employer an example of what you can do. Do not send out a large number of unsolicited examples. Your name should appear on the design sheet, ideally in the same typeface used on your resume. For career fairs, or the Career Services online resume books, a one-page design sheet and one page resume are ideal, OR you may integrate text and images onto a total of two pages. Get feedback on your design sheet(s) from faculty.
You can make an appointment with a career advisor at any time, but you'll find it more helpful if you have a draft version of your resume (and/or other job search materials) to get the most useful feedback. To make an appointment, call 215-898-7530. You can also drop in during walk-in hours. These slots are open for 15 minutes so it may not be possible to get a complete review during this time.
Take a look at our calendar of events to see if we have any workshops or panel discussions that might be helpful. Take every opportunity to network with our speakers. Remember, the more you know about an organization and what they do, the easier it is to write an effective resume.